How Reforms Could Turn U.S. Postal Service Into Threat for UPS and FedEx

March 06, 2017 by Tiffany Hsu, @tiffkhsu

The chronically beleaguered U.S. Postal Service may be headed for a refresh, courtesy of major reforms proposed in Congress.

But UPS and FedEx might not like the reformed agency that will ultimately emerge from the process.

A Morgan Stanley report this month suggests that a streamlined, flexible USPS could pose a threat to the two private logistics behemoths, particularly in e-commerce delivery services.

“This is clearly a time of fast-moving, secular developments in the logistics/last mile parcel delivery space, but all signs point to increased — not reduced — competition,” according to the report.

At the moment, however, USPS is spectacularly unhealthy.

Last year, the agency posted a $5.6-billion net loss, despite having moved 154 billion pieces of mail and collected $71.4 billion in revenue.

Those figures are “grim,” analysts wrote. But the 2017 outlook is “particularly dire,” they said.

If current trends hold and USPS continues to fund pension and healthcare requirements, the agency will end up with less than $3 billion in operating cash by mid-October. That’s enough to run the system for just 10 days.

“There is no question that the USPS is a financially unviable entity as it stands and the good/bad news is that this needs to be comprehensively addressed imminently to prevent a crisis,” analysts wrote.

Congress seems poised to step in. The Republican majority in both houses bodes well for a postal reform bill, HR 756, proposed in January by Rep. Jason Chaffetz, R-Utah.

The legislation targets USPS’ substantial healthcare liabilities and seeks to improve its operational flexibility and potentially raise postage prices. It would also partially restore an exigent surcharge that allowed the agency to collect $4.6 billion in rate surcharges before the provision was rolled back in April.

USPS management expects the bill to help shave $26 billion off the agency’s costs while optimizing its revenue potential. All four major postal employee unions support the legislation.

“I’m willing to invest political capital – we have a number of stakeholders who are here as we are looking to truly save the Postal Service as we know it,” said Rep. Mark Meadows, R-N.C., at a February hearing by the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.

Meadows chairs the committee’s subcommittee on government operations. Chaffetz, the bill’s sponsor, chairs the overarching committee.

The reforms are a bit of a gamble, because USPS faces many headwinds. Its high-margin first-class mail business is sliding, while its low-margin package business is on the upswing, putting more pressure on its solvency. Its fleet of delivery vehicles is outdated.

But with some help, Morgan Stanley analysts believe a sleeker USPS could put UPS and FedEx on the defensive.

“We believe a healthier, nimbler USPS with incremental pricing on its non-package mail business and higher capex that drives better service could actually become a stronger force to be reckoned with in the e-commerce space, especially in rural areas where an in-house logistics network at an e-commerce giant might not reach,” analysts wrote.

In the past, UPS and FedEx have pushed for postal reform in the hopes that a stronger agency would raise costs for its services, thus elevating prices across the industry.

Morgan Stanley analysts argue that this may not be the case.

USPS is operationally profitable. Its first-class mail revenue is declining more slowly year-over-year than forecasts projected. It has made $14 billion in cost reductions since 2008. In September, it awarded contracts to six suppliers to build prototypes of next-generation USPS delivery vehicles to potentially add to its fleet.

The agency’s net income certainly isn’t impressive, but it demonstrates that the core operations aren’t necessarily in disarray. The primary financial culprit is retiree healthcare benefit spending — if Congress can clean that up, USPS wouldn’t need to institute price hikes, Morgan Stanley analysts wrote.

And even if the agency decides to charge more for its services, it likely won’t target e-commerce parcel delivery, analysts wrote.

USPS considers packages to fall into a business category it dubs competitive products. That sector isn’t subject to a government-imposed price cap that affects USPS’ “market dominant products” category.

The argument, according to Morgan Stanley, is that if USPS wanted to raise parcel delivery prices, it would have done so already because Congress doesn’t restrict such increases. If anything, a reformed USPS would lower prices for package services while boosting stamp prices.

“That should be easier and have a much more positive impact, and we think stamp prices are too low, not package prices,” said David G. Ross, an analyst with Stifel Financial Corp.

Besides, Morgan Stanley analysts wrote, it’s not like USPS would hike package prices to a level that would justify UPS and FedEx following suit.

Currently, USPS’ competitive products are priced at $4 a unit, compared with $8 at UPS and FedEx Ground, Morgan Stanley found. So a 50 percent increase at USPS would still put the price 25 percent below the private competitors’.

Currently, UPS and FedEx can command a premium over USPS for package pricing because of superior technology and service, Ross said. But customers accustomed to cheap delivery could revolt if prices rise more, according to Morgan Stanley.

Such a move might actually benefit e-commerce behemoths such as Amazon and Walmart, who could rely more on in-house logistics and cheaper last-mile services. And smaller bricks-and-mortar retailers could adopt an omnichannel strategy, shipping from stores using local delivery and abandoning FedEx and UPS.

Congressional legislation could “infuse greater innovation” into the Postal Service even as it works to “provide greater product and pricing flexibility,” said Brian J. Wagner, president of the National Association of Postal Supervisors, in a February letter to Chaffetz.

Still, Ross is skeptical that such government efforts will significantly shake up the industry pecking order. USPS leads the business-to-consumer delivery market by a wide margin, often partnering with FedEx SmartPost and UPS SurePost. Meanwhile, FedEx and UPS hold the advantage in sortation and last-mile delivery, he said.

FedEx and UPS also invest billions of dollars annually into new, expanded and automated facilities that can accommodate growing demand for e-commerce delivery, Ross said. The companies also pour funds into improvements to their delivery services, networks and customer service.

“This massive investment just continues to widen the gap over what the USPS can provide,” he said. “Reform at the USPS will be focused more on the financials than on the operations, so we don’t expect the competitive landscape to change much,” he said.

Related: New USPS Mail Truck Visions: a Hummer, a Tesla, a Ferrari?

21 Responses

  1. Wake up people

    “If current trends hold and USPS continues to fund pension and healthcare requirements, the agency will end up with less than $3 billion in operating cash by mid-October. That’s enough to run the system for just 10 days.

    “There is no question that the USPS is a financially unviable entity as it stands and the good/bad news is that this needs to be comprehensively addressed imminently to prevent a crisis,” analysts wrote.”

    More of the same poor reporting… the USPS hasn’t made the 2006 PAEA required $5.5 billion payments PER QUARTER in years and won’t be making them for years to come. The benefits systems that money would go to are already fully funded, especially considering that most of the employees 50 years from now will be temp workers with no benefits (given current hiring trends).


    In 2006 Congress created an artificial “crisis” to milk the Postal cash cow to death. Operating revenues have been in the black despite a 2008 economic hiccup, which is amazing for a Constitutionally required PUBLIC SERVICE that isn’t supposed to be making money.

  2. Gregory Johnson

    The USPS would be profitable, sans having to pay for retiree benefits 75 years into the future. UPS and FedEx both use USPS for the last mile delivery because USPS delivers to every address 6 and sometimes 7 days a week. It has a unique structure of offices all over. The biggest problem in the post office is having congress meddling in it. The Board of Governors has NO current members because Republicans refused to vote on any of President Obama’s nominees. SHAMEFUL that they could hate a man so much.

  3. Vince LaRosa

    In our area (49735) USPS closed the distribution center and moved it 70 miles to the west. Our area was central to all post offices. Trucks had to travel an estimated 140 miles round trip, to get to the old DC at 49735. They now have to travel over 300 miles round trip! A new building with sorting equipment lyes idle at 49735.. This is mis management number one!

  4. Me

    Another talking head whom has never worked at the usps, writes an article full of misinformation.

    • Gloria Jean Ames

      Let me make that two. I would be embarrassed to work at USPS, they are a bunch or lazy thieves.

  5. Gordon Glazer

    I thought the article was well written with the exception of this sentence: “Meanwhile, FedEx and UPS hold the advantage in sortation and last-mile delivery, he said.” USPS actually holds the lead here, performing 62% of all residential deliveries, per Stifel Industry Update November 30, 2016. As a Republican, I hope that the leaders of our party will do the right thing and pass meaningful postal reform this year. This problem was caused by the PAEA and Congress needs to fix it.

  6. Tom b

    Nobody addresses the need for a complete overhaul of personnel structure. 100,000 people in management, vs 500,000 actually moving the mail. Way top heavy compared to ups and FedEx . Cut 50,000 useless managers and people dreaming up useless programs and ad campaigns problem solved.

    They also rely on schemed clerks to sort mail. A computer prints 99% of the labels . Why not print the route number on all parcels so any body could sort the parcels or letters. Save tons of time and money.

    • JOE WING

      True there, unless you are a career clerk whom has worked the same scheme for 10 plus years, the scheme is nearly impossible to memorize, especially where I work where all the new growth and unincorporated neighborhoods. Half the time our “Cylops ” or ring scanners either beep with no route, or won’t scan at all, especially with foreign labels. so a good majority of the time our PSE’S rely on looking up the routes manually in the book, wasting precious time, or having to take the HOTcase clerk from their tasks to help in parcel distribution. We love the Amazon boxes, so much quicker, just scan as quickly possible, no need to route, just scan and throw, already on the label.

  7. Robert A Lyon

    USPS over hires. Typical gov’t waste. There’s 18 post offices within a ten mile radius of where I live. Problem is like all gov’t it’s too bloated.

    • joe

      Agree. But you must relize congress mandates by law that they have to be there. Post office cant close them by law.Ups and fedex not required.

    • Carol R

      You do realize the Post Office is self funded as other government agencies are tax payer funded?

    • Kathryn Burnett

      What I understand the postal service by law has to have a PO in every town and city.They do have a few contract stations which would make more sense to have in a lot of small towns instead of a PO where they have a postmaster. The stations are bid on as far as I know, like HCR”S etc.

    • Gloria Jean Ames

      True, and still my idiot mail carrier is driving around at 8pm at night. She steals also, I would love to see her get fired, but you need an act of congress to get rid of inept government employees.

  8. Joe

    Should have stopped all the lucrative benefits for retirees a long time ago. These pension plans are way too expensive for any company, public or private

    • kralph

      The retiree benefits your referring to are for 75 years in the future from when the law was passed in 2006.
      Meaning that the majority of employees the costs are to cover have not yet been hired or for that matter, even born.
      The law that was passed as stated in an earlier comment was to milk the PO as a cash cow by Congress.

      • Diane Bloomingdale

        i have been working there for 20 years and have 5 to go. my retirement will be 6500.00 a year what will your retirement be?

    • Gloria Jean Ames

      I agree, at least then we have recourse when our mail is stolen. $50 cap on insurance is ridiculous, you can hardly buy gum for that much. I had $5K stolen from me on Christmas Eve and 2 others in the neighborhood also lost packages and the Inspector General and the Postmaster referred me to consumer affairs. The nice people who have no power.

  9. G W

    If you have proof of theft, provide it to the postal inspection unit in your city. That carrier will be terminated immediately.


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